As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 5, 2020

Registration No. 333-            .

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   82-4344737
(State of incorporation)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360

Austin, Texas 78746

(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Glenn Mattes
Chief Executive Officer

TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360

Austin, Texas 78746

(737) 802-1973

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

 

Copy to:

 

Daniel K. Donahue

Greenberg Traurig, LLP

18565 Jamboree Road, Suite 500

Irvine, California 92612

(949) 732-6500

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of a “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒ Smaller reporting company ☒
  Emerging growth company ☒

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of securities to be registered  Amount to be
registered(1)
   Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit(1)
   Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
   Amount of
registration
fee
 
Primary offering by TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc.                
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share                
Debt Securities                
Warrant                
Subscription Rights                
Units                
Total for Primary Offering:            $100,000,000.00(1)(2)  $10,910.00(3)
Secondary Offering by Selling Stockholder                    
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share   4,000,000   $13.30(4)  $53,200,000.00(4)  $5,804.12(4)
Total for Primary and Secondary Offering                 $16,714.12 

 

(1)Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D, information is not required to be included with regard to the primary offering by the Registrant. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder as shall have aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.

 

(2)The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with, and at the time of, the issuance of the securities and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3.

 

(3)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities listed.

 

(4)With respect to shares of common stock to be offered by the selling stockholder in the secondary offering, the proposed maximum aggregate offering price and price per share have been estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act.
 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed without notice. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement relating to these securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This prospectus is neither an offer to sell nor a solicitation of an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 5, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS

$100,000,000

 

TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Common Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Units

 

4,000,000 Shares of Common Stock

Offered by a Selling Stockholder

 

We may issue securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $100,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

 

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

 

In addition, the selling stockholder identified in this prospectus or any of its pledges, donees, transferees or other successors-in-interests may offer to sell, from time to time, in amounts at prices and on terms determined at the time of the offering, up to 4,000,000 shares of our common stock under this prospectus. These sales may occur through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers of our shares or through any other means described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 15 or by any applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholder, but we will incur expenses in connection with the sale of those shares. We and the selling stockholder may offer securities at the same time or in separate transactions.

 

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “TFFP”. On November 3, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $14.06 per share.

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is ____________, 2020

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   1
ABOUT TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.   1
THE OFFERING   2
RISK FACTORS   3
NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   3
USE OF PROCEEDS   4
SELLING STOCKHOLDER   4
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER   5
COMMON STOCK   5
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES   5
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS   14
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS   14
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS   14
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   15
LEGAL MATTERS   17
EXPERTS   17
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   17
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE   18
INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS   19

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $100,000,000.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. From time to time, we may provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 17 of this prospectus.

 

The selling stockholder also may use the shelf registration statement to sell an aggregate amount of 4,000,000 shares of our common stock from time to time in the public market. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholder. The selling stockholder will deliver a supplement with this prospectus, if required, to update the information contained in this prospectus. The selling stockholder may sell its shares of common stock through any means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” or in an accompanying prospectus supplement. As used herein, the term “selling stockholder” includes the selling stockholder and its pledges, donees, transferees or other successors-in-interest.

 

We and the selling stockholder have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We do not take any responsibility for, and cannot provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. Neither this prospectus nor any accompanying prospectus supplement constitutes an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries.

 

ABOUT TFF Pharmaceuticals, INC.

 

TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: TFFP) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing innovative drug products based on our patented Thin Film Freezing, or TFF, technology platform. We believe, and early testing confirms, that our TFF platform can significantly improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, a class of drugs that makes up approximately 33% of the major pharmaceuticals worldwide, thereby improving the pharmacokinetic effect of those drugs. We believe that in the case of some new drugs that cannot be developed due to poor water-solubility, our TFF platform has the potential to improve the pharmacokinetic effect of the drug to a level allowing for its development and commercialization. In November 2019, we initiated Phase I human clinical trials of our lead product, TFF Vori, and in June 2020 we commenced Phase I human clinical trials of our TFF Tac-Lac product in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, but in July 2020, the Phase I trials of our TFF Tac-Lac product were delayed due to a resurgence of COVID-19 in the Melbourne area. A second clinical trial site in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia was opened and dosing in the Phase 1 clinical trial resumed in Australia during the third quarter 2020. We expect that dosing in this trial will be completed in the fourth quarter 2020. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not progressed the development of any other of our drug candidates to human clinical trials and our efforts have focused on the formulation, early stage animal testing and formal toxicology studies of our initial drug candidates in preparation for our first clinical trials.

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We intend to initially focus on the development of inhaled dry powder drugs for the treatment of pulmonary diseases and conditions. While our TFF platform was designed to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs generally, we have found that the technology is particularly useful in generating dry powder particles with properties that allow for superior inhalation delivery, especially to the deep lung, which is an area of extreme interest in respiratory medicine. We believe that our TFF platform can significantly increase the number of pulmonary drug products that can be delivered by way of breath-actuated inhalers, which are generally considered to be the most effective and patient-friendly means of delivering medication directly to the lungs. Our dry powder drug products will be designed for use with dry powder inhalers, which are generally considered to be the most effective of all breath-actuated inhalers. We plan to focus on developing inhaled dry powder formulations of existing off-patent drugs intended for lung diseases and conditions, which we believe includes dozens of potential drug candidates, many of which have a potential market ranging from $100 million to over $500 million.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360, Austin, Texas 78746, and our telephone number is (737) 802-1973.

 

THE OFFERING

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of debt and equity securities that we describe in this prospectus having a total initial offering price not exceeding $100,000,000 at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities.

 

In addition, the selling stockholder, Lung Therapeutics, Inc., or LTI, or its donees, pledges, transferees or other successors-in-interests may offer to sell an aggregate of 4,000,000 shares of our common stock from time to time in the public market under this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling stockholder. The selling stockholder will deliver a supplement with this prospectus, if required, to update the information contained in this prospectus. The selling stockholder may sell its shares of common stock through any means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” or in an accompanying prospectus supplement. See “Selling Stockholder” on page 4 for more information on the selling stockholder.

 

The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, any subsequently filed Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Report on Form 8-K, together with all of the other information appearing in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

 

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains, and any accompanying prospectus supplement will contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1993. Also, documents that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus, including documents that we subsequently file with the SEC, will contain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are those that predict or describe future events or trends and that do not relate solely to historical matters. You can generally identify forward-looking statements as statements containing the words “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “believe,” “project,” “plan,” “assume” or other similar expressions, or negatives of those expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. All statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement regarding our business strategy, future operations, projected financial position, potential strategic transactions, proposed licensing arrangements, projected sales growth, estimated future revenues, cash flows and profitability, projected costs, potential outcome of litigation, potential sources of additional capital, future prospects, future economic conditions, the future of our industry and results that might be obtained by pursuing management’s current plans and objectives are forward-looking statements.

 

You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements because the matters they describe are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Our forward-looking statements are based on the information currently available to us and speak only as of the date on the cover of this prospectus, the date of any prospectus supplement, or, in the case of forward-looking statements incorporated by reference, the date of the filing that includes the statement. Over time, our actual results, performance or achievements may differ from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements, and such difference might be significant and materially adverse to our security holders. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

We have identified some of the important factors that could cause future events to differ from our current expectations and they are described in this prospectus and supplements to this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors,” as well as in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, including under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in other documents that we may file with the SEC, all of which you should review carefully. Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities described in this prospectus for general corporate and operations purposes and to fund our anticipated growth. The applicable prospectus supplement will provide more details on the use of proceeds of any specific offering. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholder.

 

SELLING STOCKHOLDER

 

All of the 4,000,000 shares of common stock registered for sale by the selling stockholder pursuant to this prospectus are owned by the Lung Therapeutics, Inc., or LTI, a Texas corporation. We are registering such shares to permit the selling stockholder and its pledges, donees, transferees or other successors-in-interest that receive their shares after the date of this prospectus to resell the shares in the manner contemplated under the “Plan of Distribution”.

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on January 24, 2018 by LTI. In March 2018, we completed a Series A preferred stock financing with third-party investors, at which time we acquired certain of LTI’s non-core intellectual property rights and other assets, all of which relate to our Thin Film Freezing technology, in exchange for 4,000,000 shares of our common stock. LTI is an early stage biotechnology company focused on the development of certain technologies in the pulmonary field. We are no longer a subsidiary of LTI; however, LTI currently provides us with office space and certain administrative services and equipment for no charge, from time to time on an as-needed basis, and three of our directors, Aaron Fletcher, Robert Mills and Brian Windsor, are also members of the board of directors of LTI and Mr. Windsor is the Chief Executive Officer of LTI. 

 

The following table sets forth information with respect to the selling stockholder and the shares of common stock beneficially owned by the selling stockholder, including shares that may be offered under this prospectus. The information is based on information provided by or on behalf of the selling stockholder to us as of the date of this prospectus. For purposes of the table below, we have assumed that after termination of this offering none of the shares covered by this prospectus that are currently owned by the selling stockholder will be held by the selling stockholder.

 

Name of Selling Stockholder  Shares of
Common Stock
Beneficially
Owned Prior
to Offering
   Percent
of Shares
Owned
Before
Offering
   Maximum
Number of
Shares That
May Be Sold
Pursuant to
this Prospectus
   Shares of
Common Stock
Beneficially
Owned After
Offering
   Percent
of Shares
Owned
After
Offering
 
Lung Therapeutics, Inc.   4,000,000    17.9%   4,000,000    --    -- 

 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, any combination of common stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and units having an aggregate initial offering price not exceeding $100,000,000. In this prospectus, we refer to the common stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and units that we may offer collectively as “securities.”

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue 45,000,000 shares of $0.001 par value common stock. Holders of shares of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders generally. Stockholders are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor, and in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the company to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities. The holders of shares of common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or cumulative voting rights.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer other than our common stock. Each time we sell any of our securities under this prospectus, we will, to the extent required by law, provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. For more information, see “About this Prospectus.”

 

Description of Debt Securities

 

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered.

 

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, which may be issued under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, which may be issued under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. While it is highly likely that any debt securities we issue will be issued under an indenture, we reserve the right to issue debt securities other than under an indenture pursuant to an exemption from the indenture requirement under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. Any debt securities issued by us other than pursuant to an indenture will subject the purchasers of such debt securities to certain unique risks arising from the lack of a trustee charged with the responsibility of monitoring the debt securities and enforcing the rights of the holders of such debt securities, which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement filed with regard to such unindentured debt securities.

 

The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review any indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

 

If we issue debt securities other than under an indenture, we will likely be limited to issuing a maximum of $50 million of such debt securities and it is also likely that such debt securities will be unsecured and subordinated. Any indenture regarding debt securities issued by us will not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The debt securities or applicable indenture, if any, will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

 

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General

 

The following is a summary of the general terms of the debt securities we may issue under an indenture or otherwise, except as otherwise described in a prospectus supplement.

 

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities).

 

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities or any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

whether the debt securities will be issued under an indenture;

 

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to subordinated debt securities, the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

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whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in any indenture;

 

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

if the debt securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral security, pledge or other agreements; and

 

any other material terms of the debt securities.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences. When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

 

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

 

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the debt securities or any indenture.

 

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

 

The following is a summary of the general terms of the senior debt securities we may issue under a senior indenture, except as otherwise described in a prospectus supplement.

 

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

certain other conditions are met.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

 

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

 

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If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

 

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, prior to a declaration of acceleration and subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto. For information as to the waiver of defaults, see “—Modification and Waiver.”

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

 

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

 

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The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of senior debt securities if:

 

we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the senior debt securities would be treated as a taxable event, and beneficial owners of such debt securities would generally recognize any gain or loss on such senior debt securities. Purchasers of the senior debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

 

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any senior series of senior debt securities issued under the indentures.

 

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the senior debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due.

 

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

 

If we ever did accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

 

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the senior debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the senior debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

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We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due.

 

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the senior debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture;

 

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

 

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Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

waives a default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities;

 

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or to modify or amend or to waive certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

 

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

 

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We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

 

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

 

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

 

The following is a summary of the general terms of the subordinated debt securities we may issue under a subordinated indenture, except as otherwise described in a prospectus supplement.

 

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

 

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

 

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

 

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

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all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

 

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

Description of Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of common stock, debt securities, and/or units from time to time. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from those securities.  If we issue warrants, they will be evidenced by warrant agreements or warrant certificates issued under one or more warrant agreements, which will be contracts between us and the holders of the warrants or an agent for the holders of the warrants. We encourage you to read the prospectus supplement that relates to any warrants we may offer, as well as the complete warrant agreement or warrant certificate that contain the terms of the warrants.  If we issue warrants, the forms of warrant agreements and warrant certificates, as applicable, relating to the warrants will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus, or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Description of Subscription Rights

 

We may issue rights to purchase our securities. The rights may or may not be transferable by the persons purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting, standby purchase or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. In connection with a rights offering to holders of our capital stock a prospectus supplement will be distributed to such holders on or after the record date for receiving rights in the rights offering set by us.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the subscription rights, standby underwriting agreement or other agreements, if any. The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

 

the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

the exercise price;

 

the conditions to completion of the rights offering;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the rights will expire; and

 

any applicable federal income tax considerations.

 

Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase the principal amount of securities at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.

 

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting or purchase arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Description of Units

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination from time to time. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. If we issue units, they will be evidenced by unit agreements or unit certificates issued under one or more unit agreements, which will be contracts between us and the holders of the units or an agent for the holders of the units. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. We encourage you to read the prospectus supplement that relates to any units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement or unit certificate that contain the terms of the units.  If we issue units, the forms of unit agreements and unit certificates, as applicable, relating to the units will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus, or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We and the selling stockholder may sell our securities from time to time in any manner permitted by the Securities Act, including any one or more of the following ways:

 

through agents;

 

to or through underwriters;

 

to or through broker-dealers (acting as agent or principal);

 

in “at the market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise; and/or

 

directly to purchasers, through a specific bidding or auction process or otherwise.

 

The securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices relating to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.

 

Offers to purchase offered securities may be solicited by agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us will be set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a reasonable best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the offered securities so offered and sold.

 

We and the selling stockholder will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of the offering of our securities, including:

 

the name or names of any agents, underwriters or dealers;

 

the purchase price of our securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and commissions and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

the public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed.

 

If we or the selling stockholder offer securities to be sold to the public by means of an underwritten offering, either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by the managing underwriters, we or the selling stockholder will execute an underwriting agreement with an underwriter or underwriters, and the names of the specific managing underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriters, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the terms of the transaction, including commissions, discounts and any other compensation of the underwriters and dealers, if any, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, which prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to make resales of the offered securities. If underwriters are utilized in the sale of the offered securities, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:

 

transactions on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any other organized market where the securities may be traded;

 

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in the over-the-counter market;

 

in negotiated transactions; or

 

under delayed delivery contracts or other contractual commitments.

 

We or the selling stockholder may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional offered securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price with additional underwriting discounts or commissions, as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we or the selling stockholder grant any over-allotment option, the terms of the over-allotment option will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We or the selling stockholder may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The conditions to these contracts and the commissions to be paid for solicitation of these contracts will be described in the prospectus supplement.

 

We or the selling stockholder may indemnify agents, underwriters and dealers against specified liabilities, including liabilities incurred under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments they may be required to make in respect of such liabilities. Agents, underwriters or dealers, or their respective affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us, the selling stockholder or our respective affiliates, in the ordinary course of business.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, which is traded on The NASDAQ Capital Market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on any exchange and, in the case of our common stock, on any additional exchange. However, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not be obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the offered securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

 

We have advised the selling stockholder that the anti-manipulation rules of Regulation M may apply to sales of shares in the market and to the activities of the selling stockholder its affiliates. This regulation may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of the shares of common stock offered in this prospectus by the selling stockholder. The anti-manipulation rules under the Exchange Act may apply to sales of shares in the market and to the activities of the selling stockholder and its affiliates.

 

To comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the securities offered by this prospectus will be offered and sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the issuance of the securities offered by this prospectus has been passed upon for us by Greenberg Traurig, LLP, Irvine, California.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of Marcum, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is incorporated by reference herein, and has been so incorporated in reliance upon such report and upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act that registers the securities to be sold in this offering. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are and will become available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at its public reference facilities at 100 F Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You can also obtain copies of the documents upon the payment of a duplicating fee to the SEC. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference facilities. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at https://ir.tffpharma.com/financial-information/sec-filings. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website and it is not a part of this document.

 

This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules thereto. Some items are omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. You should review the information and exhibits included in the registration statement for further information about us and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that we have filed separately with the SEC. You should read the information incorporated by reference because it is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-39102):

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 27, 2020;
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on April 29, 2020;
Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 14, 2020;
Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on August 13, 2020;
Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020;
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 31, 2020, August 11, 2020, September 30, 2020 and October 1, 2020;
Our definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on August 28, 2020; and
The description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A12B filed with the SEC on October 22, 2019.

 

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act made after the effective date of this registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and until we terminate this offering. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

 

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the reports or documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You can access the reports and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus at https://ir.tffpharma.com/financial-information/sec-filings. You may also direct any requests for reports or documents to:

 

TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360

Austin, Texas 78746

Attention: Corporate Secretary

Telephone: (737) 802-1973

Email: investorinfo@tffpharma.com

 

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

18

 

 

INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that corporations may include a provision in their certificate of incorporation relieving directors of monetary liability for breach of their fiduciary duty as directors, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) for unlawful payment of a dividend or unlawful stock purchase or redemption, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that directors are not liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duty as directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. In addition to the foregoing, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that we shall indemnify directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law and we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers.

 

The above provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and may discourage or deter stockholders or management from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duty, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise have benefited us and our stockholders. However, we believe that the foregoing provisions are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

19

 

 

PART II – INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, all of which will be borne by us, are set forth in the following itemized table:

 

SEC Registration Fee  $16,714.12 
Printing Fees and Expenses   * 
Legal Fees and Expenses   * 
Accounting Fees and Expenses   * 
Transfer Agent Fees and Expenses   * 
Miscellaneous Fees and Expenses   * 
Total  $16,714.12 

 

 

*Fees and expenses (other than the SEC registration fee to be paid upon the filing of this registration statement) will depend on the number and nature of the offerings, and cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of securities being offered will be included in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any persons who are, or are threatened to be made, parties to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of such corporation), by reason of the fact that such person was an officer, director, employee or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as an officer, director, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, provided that such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was illegal. Section 145 of the DGCL further authorizes a corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any indemnified person against any liability asserted against and incurred by such person in any indemnified capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, regardless of whether the corporation would otherwise have the power to indemnify such person under the DGCL.

 

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except for liability for any:

 

breach of a director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders;

 

act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

unlawful payment of dividends or redemption of shares; or

 

transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide that we must, indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL and also pay expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition upon delivery of an undertaking, by or on behalf of an indemnified person, to repay all amounts so advanced if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this section or otherwise.

 

II-1

 

 

As permitted by the DGCL, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and certain of our officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

 

We have an insurance policy covering our officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.

 

Any underwriting agreement or similar agreement that we enter into in connection with an offer of securities pursuant to this registration statement may provide for indemnification by any underwriters of us, our directors, our officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Insofar as the forgoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

The exhibits to this registration statement are listed below in the Exhibit Index.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post- effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-2

 

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date, or

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of an undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-3

 

 

(7) That (1) for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b) (1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective, and (2) for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(8) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(9) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-4

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements of filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Austin, Texas on November 5, 2020.

 

  TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
     
  By: /s/ Glenn Mattes
    Glenn Mattes
    Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Glenn Mattes and Kirk Coleman, and each of them, as such person’s true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, each with full powers of substitution and re-substitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed on November 5, 2020 by the following persons in the capacities indicated.

 

Signature   Title
     
/s/ Glenn Mattes    
Glenn Mattes   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
     
/s/ Kirk Coleman    
Kirk Coleman   Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
     
/s/ Aaron Fletcher, Ph.D.    
Aaron Fletcher, Ph.D.   Chairman of the Board
     
/s/ Brian Windsor, Ph.D.    
Brian Windsor, Ph.D.   Director
     
/s/ Robert S. Mills, Jr.    
Robert S. Mills, Jr.   Director
     
/s/ Stephen c. Rocamboli    
Stephen C. Rocamboli   Director
     
/s/ Harlan Weisman, M.D.    
Harlan Weisman, M.D.   Director
     
/s/ Randy Thurman    
Randy Thurman   Director
     
/s/ Malcolm Fairbairn    
Malcolm Fairbairn   Director

 

II-5

 

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit No.   Description   Method of Filing
         
3.1   Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant   Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on August 20, 2019
         
3.2   Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant   Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on August 20, 2019
         
4.1   Specimen Certificate representing shares of common stock of Registrant   Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on September 27, 2019
         
4.2   Form of Senior Indenture   Filed electronically herewith
         
4.3   Form of Subordinated Indenture   Filed electronically herewith
         
4.4   Form of Senior Note   Filed electronically herewith
         
4.5   Form of Subordinated Note   Filed electronically herewith
         
4.6   Form of Warrant Agreement   To be filed by amendment to this registration statement, or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference into this registration statement, in each case in connection with a particular offering of the securities
         
4.7   Form of Unit Agreement   To be filed by amendment to this registration statement, or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference into this registration statement, in each case in connection with a particular offering of the securities
         
5.1   Opinion and Consent of Greenberg Traurig, LLP   Filed electronically herewith
         
23.1   Consent of Marcum LLP   Filed electronically herewith
         
23.4   Consent of Greenberg Traurig, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)   Filed electronically herewith
         
24.1   Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to this registration statement)   Filed electronically herewith
         
25.1   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939   To be subsequently filed, if applicable, under the electronic form type “305B2”
         
25.2   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939   To be subsequently filed, if applicable, under the electronic form type “305B2”

 

 

II-6

 

Exhibit 4.2

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

and

 

______________________________

 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of

 

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended

 

Section of

Indenture

310(a)   6.09
310(b)   6.08
    6.10
310(c)   Inapplicable
311(a)   6.13
311(b)   6.13
311(c)   Inapplicable
312(a)   4.01
    4.04
312(b)   4.04(c)
312(c)   4.04(c)
313(a)   4.03
313(b)   4.03
313(c)   4.03
313(d)   4.03
314(a)   4.02
314(b)   Inapplicable
314(c)   2.04
    8.04
    9.01(c)
    10.01(b)
    11.05
314(d)   Inapplicable
314(e)   11.05
314(f)   Inapplicable
315(a)   6.01
    6.02
315(b)   5.11
315(c)   6.01
315(d)   6.01
    6.02
315(e)   5.12
316(a)   5.09
    5.10
    7.04
316(b)   5.06
    5.10
316(c)   7.02
317(a)   5.04
317(b)   3.04
318(a)   11.07

 

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

i

 

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

        PAGE
   
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS   1
Section 1.01   Certain Terms Defined   1
   
ARTICLE 2 SECURITIES   4
Section 2.01   Forms Generally   4
Section 2.02   Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication   5
Section 2.03   Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series   5
Section 2.04   Authentication and Delivery of Securities   6
Section 2.05   Execution of Securities   7
Section 2.06   Certificate of Authentication   8
Section 2.07   Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest   8
Section 2.08   Registration, Transfer and Exchange   8
Section 2.09   Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities   10
Section 2.10   Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof   10
Section 2.11   Temporary Securities   11
   
ARTICLE 3 COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER   11
Section 3.01   Payment of Principal and Interest   11
Section 3.02   Offices for Payments, Etc.   11
Section 3.03   Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee   11
Section 3.04   Paying Agents   12
Section 3.05   Written Statement to Trustee   12
   
ARTICLE 4 SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE   12
Section 4.01   Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders   12
Section 4.02   Reports by the Issuer   13
Section 4.03   Reports by the Trustee   13
Section 4.04   Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders   13
   
ARTICLE 5 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT   13
Section 5.01   Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default   13
Section 5.02   Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt   14
Section 5.03   Application of Proceeds   16
Section 5.04   Suits for Enforcement   16
Section 5.05   Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings   16
Section 5.06   Limitations on Suits by Securityholders   17
Section 5.07   Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits   17
Section 5.08   Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default   17
Section 5.09   Control by Holders of Securities   17
Section 5.10   Waiver of Past Defaults   18
Section 5.11   Trustee to Give Notice of Default   18
Section 5.12   Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs   18
   
ARTICLE 6 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE   18
Section 6.01   Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default   18
Section 6.02   Certain Rights of the Trustee   18
Section 6.03   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof   19
Section 6.04   Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.   19
Section 6.05   Moneys Held by Trustee   19
Section 6.06   Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim   19
Section 6.07   Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.   19
Section 6.08   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests   19
Section 6.09   Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee   19

 

ii

 

 

Section 6.10   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee   21
Section 6.11   Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee   21
Section 6.12   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee   22
Section 6.13   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer   22
   
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS   22
Section 7.01   Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders   22
Section 7.02   Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities   23
Section 7.03   Holders to Be Treated as Owners   23
Section 7.04   Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding   23
Section 7.05   Right of Revocation of Action Taken   23
   
ARTICLE 8 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES   24
Section 8.01   Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders   24
Section 8.02   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders   25
Section 8.03   Effect of Supplemental Indenture   25
Section 8.04   Documents to Be Given to Trustee   26
Section 8.05   Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures   26
         
ARTICLE 9 CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE   26
Section 9.01   Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms   26
Section 9.02   Successor Issuer Substituted   27
         
ARTICLE 10 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS   27
Section 10.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance   27
Section 10.02   Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities   29
Section 10.03   Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent   29
Section 10.04   Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years   29
Section 10.05   Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations   29
         
ARTICLE 11 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS   30
Section 11.01   No Recourse   30
Section 11.02   Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities   30
Section 11.03   Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture   30
Section 11.04   Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities   30
Section 11.05   Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein   31
Section 11.06   Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays   31
Section 11.07   Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939   31
Section 11.08   New York Law to Govern   31
Section 11.09   Counterparts   31
Section 11.10   Effect of Headings   31
Section 11.11   Actions by Successor   32
Section 11.12   Severability   32
   
ARTICLE 12 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS   32
Section 12.01   Applicability of Article   32
Section 12.02   Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions   32
Section 12.03   Payment of Securities Called for Redemption   33
Section 12.04   Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption   33
Section 12.05   Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds   33

 

iii

 

 

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of between TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and             , a (the “Trustee”), 

 

W I T N E S S E T H :

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture; 

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933 (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular. 

 

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf. 

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee. 

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close. 

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date. 

 

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Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time. 

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at . 

 

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt. 

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series. 

 

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts. 

 

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01. 

 

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States. 

 

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04. 

 

Holder”, “holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof. 

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder. 

 

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any. 

 

Issuer” means TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns. 

 

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer. 

 

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c). 

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05. 

 

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Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby. 

 

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution. 

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01. 

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except 

 

(a) Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(b) Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash or U.S. Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01 (a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and 

 

(c) Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof. 

 

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”. 

 

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

 

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject. 

 

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Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture. 

 

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b). 

 

Subsidiary” means a corporation of which stock having a majority of the voting power under ordinary circumstances is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Issuer or by one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer. 

 

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed. 

 

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series. 

 

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America. 

 

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”. 

 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice. 

 

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

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Section 2.02 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form: 

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 
  as Trustee
     
  By:  
    Authorized Officer

 

Section 2.03 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. 

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

(a) the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

(b) the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

(d) if other than Dollars, the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated;

 

(e) any date on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

(f) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined, and the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

(g) the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

(h) the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

 

(i) the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(k) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

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(l) if other than the currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

(m) if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

(n) if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(o) if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

(p) whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay additional amounts on the Securities of any series in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

(q) if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(r) any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(s) any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture;

 

(t) if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange; and

 

(u) any other terms of the series.

 

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.04 Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon: 

 

(a) an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

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(b) any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

(c) an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

(d) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

(i) the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

(ii) the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture,

 

(iii) such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer, and

 

(iv) all laws and requirements in respect of the execution and delivery by the Issuer of the Securities have been complied with, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

 

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:

 

“Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any other applicable statute or regulation.

 

Section 2.05 Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee. 

 

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In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

Section 2.06 Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. 

 

Section 2.07 Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months. 

 

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day. 

 

Section 2.08 Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. 

 

Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

 

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All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

 

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first mailing of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

(i) to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

(ii) to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

 

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Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

Section 2.09 Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated, defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee. 

 

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.10 Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. 

 

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Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

 

Section 3.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer. 

 

Section 3.02 Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03. 

 

The Issuer will maintain in , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

 

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof. 

 

Section 3.03 Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder. 

 

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Section 3.04 Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

(a) that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

(b) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

(c) that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

 

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

 

Section 3.05 Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written statement covering the previous fiscal year, signed by two of its officers (which need not comply with Section 11.05), stating that in the course of the performance of their duties as officers of the Issuer they would normally have knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant, agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, stating whether or not they have knowledge of any such default and, if so, specifying each such default of which the signers have knowledge and the nature thereof.

 

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER

AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 4.01 Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939: 

 

(a) semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

(b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

 

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Section 4.02 Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act insofar as it relates to information, documentations, and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. 

 

Section 4.03 Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act. 

 

Section 4.04 Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity). 

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS

ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 5.01 Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means each one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body): 

 

(a) default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

(b) default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

(c) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or 

 

(d) a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

(e) the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

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(f) any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

 

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall become immediately due and payable.

 

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

 

Section 5.02 Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise—then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith. 

 

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In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

 

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

(i) to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

(ii) unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

(iii) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

 

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

 

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In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

 

Section 5.03 Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid: 

 

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

 

SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

 

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

 

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 5.04 Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law. 

 

Section 5.05 Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.  

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Section 5.06 Limitations on Suits by Securityholders. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity. 

 

Section 5.07 Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.08 Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy. 

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

 

Section 5.09 Control by Holders of Securities. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders. 

 

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

 

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Section 5.10 Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon. 

 

Section 5.11 Trustee to Give Notice of Default. The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 4.03, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the mailing or publication of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.  

 

Section 5.12 Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture. 

 

ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 6.01 Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (which has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs. 

 

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

 

Section 6.02 Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01: 

 

(a) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

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(b) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(c) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

(d) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(e) the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(f) any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

(g) the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

(h) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

(i) the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(j) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and 

 

(k) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof. 

 

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Section 6.04 Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent. 

 

Section 6.05 Moneys Held by Trustee. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder. 

 

Section 6.06 Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises. The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim. 

 

Section 6.07 Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof. 

 

Section 6.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. 

 

Section 6.09 Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. 

 

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Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by mailing notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee. 

 

(b) In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c) The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

 

Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee. Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers. Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

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If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

 

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall mail notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by mailing such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10. If the Issuer fails to mail such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

 

Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. 

 

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation. 

 

Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein. 

 

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 7.01 Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article. 

 

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Section 7.02 Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent. Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer. 

 

Section 7.03 Holders to Be Treated as Owners. The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

Section 7.04 Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities which are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice. 

 

Section 7.05 Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action. 

 

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ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 8.01 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes: 

 

(a) to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

(b) to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

(c) to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

(d) to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default; 

 

(e) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus or prospectus supplement related to such series of Securities;

 

(f) to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

(g) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

(i) to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

(j) to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

(k) to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

 

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

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Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

 

Section 8.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the payment or conversion thereof or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

 

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

 

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by mailing a notice thereof by first-class mail to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

Section 8.03 Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes. 

 

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Section 8.04 Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture. 

 

Section 8.05 Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding. 

 

ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 

Section 9.01 Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of and interest on all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with. 

 

The conditions of (a)(ii) above shall not apply in the case of a corporation or entity not organized under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia which shall agree, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) to subject itself to the jurisdiction of the United States district court for the Southern District of New York and (ii) to indemnify and hold harmless the holders of all Securities against (A) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on such holders by a jurisdiction other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein with respect to, and withheld on the making of, any payment of principal or interest on such Securities and which would not have been so imposed and withheld had such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance not been made and (B) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on or relating to, and any costs or expenses involved in, such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance.

 

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

 

Nothing contained in this Article shall apply to, limit or impose any requirements upon the consolidation or merger of any Person into the Issuer where the Issuer is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Issuer, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Issuer).

 

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Section 9.02 Successor Issuer Substituted. Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

ARTICLE 10 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; 

DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

 

Section 10.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance. (a) If at any time

 

(i) the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

(ii) the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) or

 

(iii) in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

(A) all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

(B) the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in cash (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) or, in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash sufficient to pay on any subsequent interest payment date all interest due on such interest payment date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be, and if, in any such case (i), (ii) or (iii), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series. The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

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(b) The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations discharged with all Outstanding Securities of a series (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such a series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

(c) The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

(d) The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance under subsection (b) or Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

(i) the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, cash or U.S. Government Obligations that will generate cash sufficient to pay principal of and interest on the Outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and to pay all other amounts payable by it hereunder, provided that (A) the trustee of the irrevocable trust, if any, shall have been irrevocably instructed to pay such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to the Trustee and (B) the Trustee shall have been irrevocably instructed to apply such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to (x) the principal and interest on all Securities of such series on the date that such principal or interest is due and payable and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and the Securities of such series, and the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other amounts payable hereunder with respect to such series;

 

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(ii) the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

(iii) no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

(iv) in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

(v) in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

(vi) notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

 

Section 10.02 Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

Section 10.03 Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

Section 10.04 Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

 

Section 10.05 Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

 

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ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 11.01 No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities. 

 

Section 11.02 Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities. 

 

Section 11.03 Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. 

 

Section 11.04 Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360, Austin, Texas 78746, Attn: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at , , Attn: .  Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his or her last address as it appears in the Security register. In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

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Section 11.05 Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

 

Section 11.06 Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date. 

 

Section 11.07 Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

 

Section 11.08 New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law. 

 

Section 11.09 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. 

 

Section 11.10 Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. 

 

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Section 11.11 Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

 

Section 11.12 Severability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein. 

 

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 12.01 Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series. 

 

Section 12.02 Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register. Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series. 

 

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued. The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

 

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Common Stock in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust. The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed. In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

 

32

 

 

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed. If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

 

Section 12.03 Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Common Stock (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof. 

 

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Common Stock until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

 

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 12.04 Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer. 

 

Section 12.05 Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”. 

 

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Common Stock and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

 

33

 

 

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

 

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity. The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Common Stock in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

 

On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

 

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The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where the mailing of notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

 

[Signature pages follow]

 

35

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of.

 

  TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
     
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:
   
  Attest:
                                
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:
   
   , Trustee
     
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

  

  

36

 

 

Exhibit 4.3

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

and

 

 

 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of

 

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended

 

Section of Indenture

310(a)   6.09
310(b)   6.08
6.10
310(c)   Inapplicable
311(a)   6.13
311(b)   6.13
311(c)   Inapplicable
312(a)   4.01
4.04
312(b)   4.04(c)
312(c)   4.04(c)
313(a)   4.03
313(b)   4.03
313(c)   4.03
313(d)   4.03
314(a)   4.02
314(b)   Inapplicable
314(c)   2.04
8.04
9.01(c)
10.01(b)
11.05
314(d)   Inapplicable
314(e)   11.05
314(f)   Inapplicable
315(a)   6.01
6.02
315(b)   5.11
315(c)   6.01
315(d)   6.01
    6.02
315(e)   5.12
316(a)   5.09
5.10
7.04
316(b)   5.06
5.10
316(c)   7.02
317(a)   5.04
317(b)   3.04
318(a)   11.07

 

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

        PAGE
   
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS   1
Section 1.01   Certain Terms Defined   1
ARTICLE 2 SECURITIES   5
Section 2.01   Forms Generally   5
Section 2.02   Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication   5
Section 2.03   Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series   5
Section 2.04   Authentication and Delivery of Securities   7
Section 2.05   Execution of Securities   8
Section 2.06   Certificate of Authentication   8
Section 2.07   Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest   8
Section 2.08   Registration, Transfer and Exchange   9
Section 2.09   Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities   10
Section 2.10   Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof   11
Section 2.11   Temporary Securities   11
ARTICLE 3 COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER   11
Section 3.01   Payment of Principal and Interest   11
Section 3.02   Offices for Payments, Etc.   11
Section 3.03   Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee   12
Section 3.04   Paying Agents   12
Section 3.05   Written Statement to Trustee   12
ARTICLE 4 SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE   13
Section 4.01   Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders   13
Section 4.02   Reports by the Issuer   13
Section 4.03   Reports by the Trustee   13
Section 4.04   Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders   13
ARTICLE 5 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT   13
Section 5.01   Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default   13
Section 5.02   Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt   15
Section 5.03   Application of Proceeds   16
Section 5.04   Suits for Enforcement   17
Section 5.05   Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings   17
Section 5.06   Limitations on Suits by Securityholders   17
Section 5.07   Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits   17
Section 5.08   Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default   17
Section 5.09   Control by Holders of Securities   18
Section 5.10   Waiver of Past Defaults   18
Section 5.11   Trustee to Give Notice of Default   18
Section 5.12   Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs   18
ARTICLE 6 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE   19
Section 6.01   Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default   19
Section 6.02   Certain Rights of the Trustee   19
Section 6.03   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof   20
Section 6.04   Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.   20
Section 6.05   Moneys Held by Trustee   20
Section 6.06   Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim   20
Section 6.07   Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.   21
Section 6.08   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests   21
Section 6.09   Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee   21
Section 6.10   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee   21
Section 6.11   Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee   22

 

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Section 6.12   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee   22
Section 6.13   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer   23
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS   23
Section 7.01   Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders   23
Section 7.02   Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities   23
Section 7.03   Holders to Be Treated as Owners   23
Section 7.04   Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding   23
Section 7.05   Right of Revocation of Action Taken   24
ARTICLE 8 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES   24
Section 8.01   Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders   24
Section 8.02   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders   25
Section 8.03   Effect of Supplemental Indenture   26
Section 8.04   Documents to Be Given to Trustee   26
Section 8.05   Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures   26
ARTICLE 9 CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE   26
Section 9.01   Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms   26
Section 9.02   Successor Issuer Substituted   27
ARTICLE 10 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS   27
Section 10.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance   27
Section 10.02   Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities   29
Section 10.03   Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent   30
Section 10.04   Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years   30
Section 10.05   Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations   30
ARTICLE 11 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS   30
Section 11.01   No Recourse   30
Section 11.02   Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities   30
Section 11.03   Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture   30
Section 11.04   Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities   30
Section 11.05   Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein   31
Section 11.06   Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays   31
Section 11.07   Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939   32
Section 11.08   New York Law to Govern   32
Section 11.09   Counterparts   32
Section 11.10   Effect of Headings   32
Section 11.11   Actions by Successor   32
Section 11.12   Severability   32
ARTICLE 12 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS   32
Section 12.01   Applicability of Article   32
Section 12.02   Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions   32
Section 12.03   Payment of Securities Called for Redemption   33
Section 12.04   Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption   34
Section 12.05   Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds   34
ARTICLE 13 SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES   35
Section 13.01   Agreement of Subordination   35
Section 13.02   Payments to Securityholders   35
Section 13.03   Subrogation of Securities   36
Section 13.04   Authorization by Securityholders   37
Section 13.05   Notice to Trustee   37
Section 13.06   Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness   38
Section 13.07   No Impairment of Subordination   38
Section 13.08   Rights of Trustee   38

 

 iii 

 

 

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of between TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and , a (the “Trustee”), 

 

W I T N E S S E T H:

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture; 

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933 (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

 

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

 

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

 

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Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at .

 

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

 

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

 

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

 

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

 

Global Security”, means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

 

Holder”, “holder”,holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

Issuer” means TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

 

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

 

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

 

 2 

 

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

 

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

 

(a) Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(b) Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash or U.S. Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and 

 

(c) Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

 

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

 

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

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Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

 

Senior Indebtedness” of a Person means the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding at the date hereof or hereafter incurred or created:

 

(a) all of the indebtedness of that Person for money borrowed;

 

(b) all of the indebtedness of that Person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that Person for money;

 

(c) all of the lease obligations which are capitalized on the books of that Person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

(d) all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in either of the preceding clauses (a) or (b) above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the preceding clause (c) above that the Person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the Person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

(e) all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in any of the preceding clauses (a), (b) and (d) and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in either of the preceding clauses (c) or (d) above;

 

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument or lease creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the Securities. 

 

Subsidiary” means a corporation of which stock having a majority of the voting power under ordinary circumstances is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Issuer or by one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer.

 

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

 

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

 

“Vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

 

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ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities. 

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

Section 2.02 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form: 

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

   
  as Trustee
     
  By:  
    Authorized Officer

 

Section 2.03 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. 

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

(a) the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

(b) the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

(d) if other than Dollars, the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated;

 

(e) any date on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

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(f) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined, and the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

(g) the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

(h) the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

 

(i) the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(k) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(l) if other than the currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

(m) if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

(n) if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(o) if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

(p) whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay additional amounts on the Securities of any series in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

(q) if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(r) any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(s) any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture;

 

(t) if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

 

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(u) the extent to which payments on the Securities will be subordinated to the payment of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer; and

 

(v) any other terms of the series.

 

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.04 Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon: 

 

(a) an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

(b) any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

(c) an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

(d) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

(i) the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

(ii) the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture,

 

(iii) such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer, and

 

(iv) all laws and requirements in respect of the execution and delivery by the Issuer of the Securities have been complied with, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

 

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The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any other applicable statute or regulation.

 

Section 2.05 Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee. 

 

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

Section 2.06 Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. 

 

Section 2.07 Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months. 

 

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

 

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Section 2.08 Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. 

 

Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

 

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

 

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first mailing of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

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The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

(i) to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

(ii) to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

 

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

Section 2.09 Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated, defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee. 

 

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.10 Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

 

Section 3.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer. 

 

Section 3.02 Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03. 

 

The Issuer will maintain in , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

 

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The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

 

Section 3.03 Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 3.04 Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

(a) that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

(b) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

(c) that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

 

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

 

Section 3.05 Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written statement covering the previous fiscal year, signed by two of its officers (which need not comply with Section 11.05), stating that in the course of the performance of their duties as officers of the Issuer they would normally have knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant, agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, stating whether or not they have knowledge of any such default and, if so, specifying each such default of which the signers have knowledge and the nature thereof.

 

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ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 4.01 Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

 

(a) semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

(b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

 

Section 4.02 Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act insofar as it relates to information, documentations, and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Section 4.03 Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 4.04 Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS

ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 5.01 Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. “Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means each one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

(a) default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

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(b) default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

(c) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(d) a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

(e) the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

(f) any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

 

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall become immediately due and payable.

 

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

 

Section 5.02 Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise—then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

 

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

 

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

(i) to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

(ii) unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

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(iii) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

 

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

 

In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

 

Section 5.03 Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

 

SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

 

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

 

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FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 5.04 Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Section 5.05 Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 5.06 Limitations on Suits by Securityholders. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.07 Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder, it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.08 Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

 

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Section 5.09 Control by Holders of Securities. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

 

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

 

Section 5.10 Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 5.11 Trustee to Give Notice of Default. The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 4.03, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the mailing or publication of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

 

Section 5.12 Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 6.01 Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (which has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

 

Section 6.02 Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

 

(a) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(b) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(c) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

(d) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(e) the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(f) any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

(g) the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

(h) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

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(i) the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(j) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

 

(k) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

 

Section 6.04 Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

 

Section 6.05 Moneys Held by Trustee. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.06 Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises. The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

 

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Section 6.07 Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 6.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 6.09 Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

 

Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by mailing notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b) In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

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(c) The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

 

Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee. Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers. Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

 

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall mail notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by mailing such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10. If the Issuer fails to mail such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

 

Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

 

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In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 7.01 Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

 

Section 7.02 Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent. Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

 

Section 7.03 Holders to Be Treated as Owners. The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

Section 7.04 Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities which are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

 

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Section 7.05 Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

 

ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 8.01 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a) to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

(b) to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

(c) to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

(d) to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

 

(e) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus or prospectus supplement related to such series of Securities;

 

(f) to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

(g) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

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(i) to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

(j) to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

(k) to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

 

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

 

Section 8.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the payment or conversion thereof or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

 

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

 

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

 

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It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by mailing a notice thereof by first-class mail to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

Section 8.03 Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 8.04 Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

Section 8.05 Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

 

ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 

Section 9.01 Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of and interest on all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

 

The conditions of (a)(ii) above shall not apply in the case of a corporation or entity not organized under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia which shall agree, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) to subject itself to the jurisdiction of the United States district court for the Southern District of New York and (ii) to indemnify and hold harmless the holders of all Securities against (A) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on such holders by a jurisdiction other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein with respect to, and withheld on the making of, any payment of principal or interest on such Securities and which would not have been so imposed and withheld had such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance not been made and (B) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on or relating to, and any costs or expenses involved in, such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance.

 

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The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

 

Nothing contained in this Article shall apply to, limit or impose any requirements upon the consolidation or merger of any Person into the Issuer where the Issuer is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Issuer, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Issuer).

 

Section 9.02 Successor Issuer Substituted. Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

ARTICLE 10

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE;

UNCLAIMED MONEYS

 

Section 10.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance. (a) If at any time

 

(i) the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

(ii) the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) or

 

(iii) in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

(A) all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

(B) the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in cash (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) or, in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash sufficient to pay on any subsequent interest payment date all interest due on such interest payment date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

 

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and if, in any such case (i), (ii) or (iii), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series. The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

(b) The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations discharged with all Outstanding Securities of a series (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such a series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

(c) The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

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(d) The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance under subsection (b) or Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

(i) the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, cash or U.S. Government Obligations that will generate cash sufficient to pay principal of and interest on the Outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and to pay all other amounts payable by it hereunder, provided that (A) the trustee of the irrevocable trust, if any, shall have been irrevocably instructed to pay such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to the Trustee and (B) the Trustee shall have been irrevocably instructed to apply such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to (x) the principal and interest on all Securities of such series on the date that such principal or interest is due and payable and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and the Securities of such series, and the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other amounts payable hereunder with respect to such series;

 

(ii) the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

(iii) no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

(iv) in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

(v) in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

(vi) notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

 

Section 10.02 Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

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Section 10.03 Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

Section 10.04 Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

 

Section 10.05 Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

 

ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 11.01 No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

Section 11.02 Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

 

Section 11.03 Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 11.04 Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be given or another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to TFF Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2600 Via Fortuna, Suite 360, Austin, Texas 78746, Attn: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at , , Attn: .

 

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Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his or her last address as it appears in the Security register. In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

Section 11.05 Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

 

Section 11.06 Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.

 

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Section 11.07 Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

 

Section 11.08 New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

 

Section 11.09 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

Section 11.10 Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

Section 11.11 Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

 

Section 11.12 Severability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 12.01 Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

 

Section 12.02 Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register. Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series. 

 

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

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The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

 

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Common Stock in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust. The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed. In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

 

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed. If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

 

Section 12.03 Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Common Stock (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof. 

 

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Common Stock until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

 

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

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Section 12.04 Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.

 

Section 12.05 Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”. 

 

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Common Stock and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

 

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

 

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If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity. The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Common Stock in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

 

On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

 

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where the mailing of notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

 

ARTICLE 13

SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

 

Section 13.01 Agreement of Subordination. The Issuer covenants and agrees, and each holder of Securities issued hereunder by its acceptance thereof likewise covenants and agrees, that all Securities shall be issued subject to the provisions of this Article 13; and each Securityholder, whether upon original issue or upon transfer or assignment thereof, accepts and agrees to be bound by such provisions. 

 

The payment of the principal of and interest on all Securities issued hereunder shall, to the extent and in the manner hereinafter set forth, be subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, whether outstanding at the date of this Indenture or thereafter incurred.

 

The provisions of this Article 13 define the subordination of the Securities, as obligations of the Issuer, with respect to Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer.

 

No provision of this Article 13 shall prevent the occurrence of any default or Event of Default hereunder.

 

Section 13.02 Payments to Securityholders. In the event and during the continuation of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer continuing beyond the period of grace, if any, specified in the instrument or lease evidencing such Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, then, unless and until such default shall have been cured or waived or shall have ceased to exist, no payment shall be made by the Issuer with respect to the principal of or interest on the Securities, except sinking fund obligations satisfied by credit of acquired Securities under Section 12.05 prior to the happening of such default and payments made pursuant to Article 10 hereof from monies deposited with the Trustee pursuant thereto prior to the happening of such default. 

 

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Upon any payment by the Issuer, or distribution of assets of the Issuer of any kind or character, whether in cash, property or securities, to creditors upon any dissolution or winding-up or liquidation or reorganization of the Issuer, whether voluntary or involuntary or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or other proceedings, all amounts due or to become due upon all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer shall first be paid in full, or payment thereof provided for in money in accordance with its terms, before any payment is made on account of the principal or interest on the Securities (except payments made pursuant to Article 10 hereof from monies deposited with the Trustee pursuant thereto prior to the happening of such dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization); and upon any such dissolution or winding-up or liquidation or reorganization any payment by the Issuer, or distribution of assets of the Issuer of any kind or character, whether in cash, property or securities, to which the holders of the Securities or the Trustee would be entitled, except for the provisions of this Article 13, shall (except as aforesaid) be paid by the Issuer or by any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, liquidating trustee, agent or other Person making such payment or distribution, or by the holders of the Securities or by the Trustee under this Indenture if received by them or it, directly to the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer (pro rata to such holders on the basis of the respective amounts of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer held by such holders, as calculated by the Issuer) or their representative or representatives, or to the trustee or trustees under any indenture pursuant to which any instruments evidencing any Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer may have been issued, as their respective interests may appear, to the extent necessary to pay all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer in full, in money or money’s worth, after giving effect to any concurrent payment or distribution to or for the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, before any payment or distribution is made to the holders of the Securities or to the Trustee.

 

In the event that, notwithstanding the foregoing, any payment or distribution of assets of the Issuer of any kind or character, whether in cash, property or securities, prohibited by the foregoing, shall be received by the Trustee or the holders of the Securities before all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer is paid in full, or provision is made for such payment in money in accordance with its terms, such payment or distribution shall be held in trust for the benefit of and shall be paid over or delivered to the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer or their representative or representatives, or to the trustee or trustees under any indenture pursuant to which any instruments evidencing any Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer may have been issued, as their respective interests may appear, as calculated by the Issuer, for application to the payment of all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer remaining unpaid to the extent necessary to pay all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer in full in money in accordance with its terms, after giving effect to any concurrent payment or distribution to or for the holders of such Senior Indebtedness.

 

For purposes of this Article 13, the words, “cash, property or securities” shall not be deemed to include shares of stock of the Issuer as reorganized or readjusted, or securities of the Issuer or any other corporation provided for by a plan of reorganization or readjustment, the payment of which is subordinated at least to the extent provided in this Article 13 with respect to the Securities to the payment of all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer which may at the time be outstanding; provided that (i) the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer is assumed by the new corporation, if any, resulting from any such reorganization or readjustment, and (ii) the rights of the holders of the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer (other than leases) and of leases which are assumed are not, without the consent of such holders, altered by such reorganization or readjustment.

 

The consolidation of the Issuer with, or the merger of the Issuer into, another corporation or the liquidation or dissolution of the Issuer following the conveyance or transfer of its property as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to another corporation upon the terms and conditions provided for in Article 9 hereof shall not be deemed a dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization for the purposes of this Section 13.02 if such other corporation shall, as a part of such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer, comply with the conditions stated in Article 9 hereof. Nothing in this Section 13.02 shall apply to claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

Section 13.03 Subrogation of Securities. Subject to the payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, the rights of the holders of the Securities shall be subrogated to the rights of the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer to receive payments or distributions of cash, property or securities of the Issuer applicable to the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer until the principal of and interest on the Securities shall be paid in full; and, for the purposes of such subrogation, no payments or distributions to or for the benefit of the holders of the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer or the Trustee of any cash, property or securities to which the holders of the Securities or the Trustee would be entitled except for the provisions of this Article 13, shall, as between the Issuer, its creditors other than holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, and the holders of the Securities, be deemed to be a payment by the Issuer to or on account of the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer. It is understood that the provisions of this Article 13 are and are intended solely for the purpose of defining the relative rights of the holders of the Securities, on the one hand, and the holders of the Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, on the other hand. 

 

 36 

 

 

Nothing contained in this Article 13 or elsewhere in this Indenture or in the Securities is intended to or shall impair, as between the Issuer, its creditors other than the holders of its Senior Indebtedness, and the holders of the Securities, the obligation of the Issuer, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay to the holders of the Securities the principal of and interest on the Securities as and when the same shall become due and payable in accordance with their terms, or is intended to or shall affect the relative rights of the holders of the Securities and creditors of the Issuer other than the holders of its Senior Indebtedness, nor shall anything herein or therein prevent the Trustee or the holder of any Security from exercising all remedies otherwise permitted by applicable law upon default under this Indenture, subject to the rights, if any, under this Article 13 of the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer in respect of cash, property or securities of the Issuer received upon the exercise of any such remedy.

 

Upon any payment or distribution of assets of the Issuer referred to in this Article 13, the Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, and the holders of the Securities shall be entitled to rely upon any order or decree made by any court of competent jurisdiction in which such dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization proceedings are pending, or a certificate of the receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, liquidating trustee, agent or other Person making such payment or distribution, delivered to the Trustee or to the holders of the Securities, for the purpose of ascertaining the Persons entitled to participate in such distribution, the holders of the Senior Indebtedness and other indebtedness of the Issuer, the amount thereof or payable thereon, the amount or amounts paid or distributed thereon and all other facts pertinent thereto or to this Article 13.

 

Section 13.04 Authorization by Securityholders. Each holder of a Security by its acceptance thereof authorizes and directs the Trustee on its behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination provided in this Article 13 appoints the Trustee its attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes. 

 

Section 13.05 Notice to Trustee. The Issuer shall give promptly written notice to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee of any fact known to the Issuer which would prohibit the making of any payment of monies to or by the Trustee in respect of the Securities pursuant to the provisions of this Article 13. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article 13 or any other provision of this Indenture, the Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of the existence of any facts which would prohibit the making of any payment of monies to or by the Trustee in respect of the Securities pursuant to the provisions of this Article 13, unless and until a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have received written notice thereof at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee from the Issuer or a holder or holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer or from any trustee therefor; and before the receipt of any such written notice, the Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, shall be entitled in all respects to assume that no such facts exist; provided that if on a date not fewer than three Business Days prior to the date upon which by the terms hereof any such monies may become payable for any purpose (including, without limitation, the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security) the Trustee shall not have received, with respect to such monies, the notice provided for in this Section 13.05, then, anything herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall have full power and authority to receive such monies and to apply the same to the purpose for which they were received, and shall not be affected by any notice to the contrary which may be received by it on or after such prior date.  

 

The Trustee conclusively shall be entitled to rely on the delivery to it of a written notice by a Person representing himself to be a holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer (or a trustee on behalf of such holder) to establish that such notice has been given by a holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer or a trustee on behalf of any such holder or holders. In the event that the Trustee determines in good faith that further evidence is required with respect to the right of any Person as a holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer to participate in any payment or distribution pursuant to this Article 13, the Trustee may request such Person to furnish evidence to the reasonable satisfaction of the Trustee as to the amount of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer held by such Person, the extent to which such Person is entitled to participate in such payment or distribution and any other facts pertinent to the rights of such Person under this Article 13, and if such evidence is not furnished the Trustee may defer any payment to such Person pending judicial determination as to the right of such Person to receive such payment.

 

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Section 13.06 Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness. The Trustee in its individual capacity shall be entitled to all the rights set forth in this Article 13 in respect of any Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer at any time held by it, to the same extent as any other holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer and nothing elsewhere in this Indenture shall deprive the Trustee of any of its rights as such holder. 

 

With respect to the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer, the Trustee undertakes to perform or to observe only such of its covenants and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Article 13, and no implied covenants or obligations with respect to the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. The Trustee shall not be deemed to owe any fiduciary duty to the holders of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer and the Trustee shall not be liable to any holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer if it shall pay over or deliver to holders of Securities, the Issuer or any other Person money or assets to which any holder of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer shall be entitled by virtue of this Article 13 or otherwise.

 

Section 13.07 No Impairment of Subordination. No right of any present or future holder of any Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer to enforce subordination as herein provided shall at any time in any way be prejudiced or impaired by any act or failure to act on the part of the Issuer or by any act or failure to act, in good faith, by any such holder, or by any noncompliance by the Issuer with the terms, provisions and covenants of this Indenture, regardless of any knowledge thereof which any such holder may have or otherwise be charged with. 

 

Section 13.08 Rights of Trustee. Nothing in this Article 13 shall apply to claims of or payments to, the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06. 

 

[Signature pages follow]

 

 38 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of.

 

  TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  
     
  Attest:                                              
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  
   
  , Trustee
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  

 

39

 

Exhibit 4.4

 

Form of Senior Note

 

(FACE OF SECURITY)

 

[Each Global Security shall bear substantially the following legend:

 

UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY. UNLESS THIS SECURITY IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE ISSUER OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY SECURITY ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.]

 

[If the Security has original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes, insert tax legend:

 

[FOR PURPOSES OF SECTIONS 1272, 1273, and 1275 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, AS AMENDED (“THE CODE”), THIS SECURITY IS BEING ISSUED WITH ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT. THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1273(A)(1) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-1(A)) WITH RESPECT TO THIS SECURITY IS , THE ISSUE DATE (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1275(A)(2) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-2(A)(2)) OF THIS SECURITY IS , THE ISSUE PRICE (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1273(B) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-2(A)) OF THIS SECURITY IS , AND THE YIELD TO MATURITY (AS DEFINED IN TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1272-1(B)) OF THIS SECURITY IS .] ] 

 

 

 

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

[ Title of Security ]

 

No. [    ]   CUSIP No.: [    ]
    [Common Code][ISIN]: [    ]
    [$   ]

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., a Delaware corporation (“Issuer”, which term includes any successor corporation), for value received promises to pay to [If the Security is a Global Security — CEDE & CO.][If the Security is not a Global Security — ] or registered assigns, the principal sum of on , (the “Maturity Date”) [If the Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from or from the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, [semiannually in arrears on and in each year], commencing , (each, an “Interest Payment Date”) at the rate of [ % per annum], until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [If applicable insert—, and (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable) at the rate of % per annum on any overdue principal and on any overdue installment of interest]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in the Indenture (as defined below), be paid to the Holder in whose name this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the record date for such interest, which shall be the or (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date (each, an “Interest Record Date”). Interest will be computed on the basis of [a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months].]

 

[If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at maturity and, in each such case, the overdue principal of this Security shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), which shall accrue from the date of such default in payment to the date payment of such principal has been made or duly provided for. Interest on any overdue principal shall be payable on demand.]

 

Reference is made to the further provisions set forth on the reverse of this Security contained herein, which will for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

 

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Issuer has caused this Security to be signed manually or by facsimile by its duly authorized officer under its corporate seal.

 

  TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
     
  By:  
    Name:                  
    Title:  

 

Attest:    
     
By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

Dated: [   ]

 

  , as Trustee
     
  By:  
    Title:  

 

 

 

 

(REVERSE OF SECURITY)

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

[ Title of Security ]

 

1. Indenture

 

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of debentures, notes or other evidence of indebtedness (hereinafter called the “Securities”) of the Issuer of the series hereinafter specified, which series is initially limited in aggregate principal amount to [$] , all of such Securities issued and to be issued under an Indenture dated as of , (the “Indenture”) between the Issuer and as trustee (the “Trustee”). Capitalized terms herein are used as defined in the Indenture unless otherwise indicated. The terms of the Securities include those stated in the Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the Indenture. The Securities are subject to all such terms, and Holders are referred to the Indenture and the Trust Indenture Act for a statement of all such terms. To the extent permitted by applicable law, in the event of any inconsistency between the terms of this Security and the terms of the Indenture, the terms of the Indenture shall control.

 

This Security is one of a series of Securities designated pursuant to the Indenture [and an [Supplemental Indenture] dated , , issued pursuant to Section 2.01 and Section 2.03 thereof (the “Supplement”)] as . The Securities are general unsecured obligations of the Issuer. The Issuer may, subject to the provisions of the Indenture and applicable law, issue additional Securities of any series under the Indenture.

 

2. Method of Payment.

 

The Issuer shall pay interest on the Securities (except defaulted interest) to the persons who are the registered Holders at the close of business on the Interest Record Date immediately preceding the Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to such Interest Record Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date. Holders must surrender Securities to the Trustee to collect principal payments. The Issuer shall pay Principal and interest in money of [the United States] that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts. [However, the payments of interest, and any portion of the Principal (other than interest payable at maturity or on any redemption or repayment date or the final payment of Principal) shall be made by the Paying Agent, upon receipt from the Issuer of immediately available funds by [a./p.m.], New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Issuer and the Paying Agent or the Issuer), directly to a Holder (by Federal funds wire transfer or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and in the case of payments of Principal surrenders the same to the Trustee in exchange for a Security or Securities aggregating the same principal amount as the unredeemed principal amount of the Securities surrendered.] 

 

3. Redemption.

 

[The Securities of this series may be redeemed at any time [on or after , ], as a whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, upon mailing notice of such redemption not less than 30 and not more than 60 days to the Holders of such Securities, at a redemption price equal to .] 

 

4. Paying Agent and Security Registrar

 

Initially, the Trustee will act as Paying Agent and Security Registrar. The Issuer may change any Paying Agent or Security Registrar without notice to the Holders.

 

5. Denominations; Transfer; Exchange.

 

The Securities are in registered form, without coupons, in denominations of [$1,000] and multiples of [$1,000]. A Holder shall register the transfer of or exchange Securities in accordance with the Indenture. The Issuer may require a Holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents and to pay certain transfer taxes or similar governmental charges payable in connection therewith as permitted by the Indenture. [The Issuer need not register the transfer of or exchange (a) any Securities for a period of fifteen (15) days preceding the first mailing of notice that such Securities are to be redeemed, or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not to be so redeemed.] 

 

1

 

 

6. Persons Deemed Owners.

 

The registered Holder of a Security shall be treated as the owner of it for all purposes.

 

7. Unclaimed Funds.

 

If funds for the payment of principal or interest remain unclaimed for two years, the Trustee and the Paying Agent will repay the funds to the Issuer. After that, all liability of the Trustee and such Paying Agent with respect to such funds shall cease.

 

8. Defeasance.

 

The Indenture [as amended by the Supplement] contains provisions for defeasance at any time of (a) the entire indebtedness of the Issuer on this Security and (b) certain restrictive covenants and the related Events of Default, upon compliance by the Issuer with certain conditions set forth therein, which provisions [apply] to this Security. 

 

9. Amendment; Supplement; Waiver.

 

Subject to certain exceptions, the Securities of this series, [the Supplement] and the provisions of the Indenture relating to the Securities of this series may be amended or supplemented with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of this series then outstanding, and any existing Default or Event of Default, other than the non-payment of the principal amount of or interest on the Securities of this series, or compliance with certain provisions may be waived with the consent of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of this series then outstanding. Without notice to or consent of any Holder, the parties thereto may amend or supplement the Indenture and the Securities to, among other things, cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities, or make any other change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Holder of a Security.

 

10. Defaults and Remedies.

 

If an Event of Default (other than certain bankruptcy Events of Default with respect to the Issuer) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series then outstanding (voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if such notice is given by the Holders) may declare [the entire principal] of the Securities of this series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture. If a bankruptcy Event of Default with respect to the Issuer occurs and is continuing, then [the entire principal] of the Securities then outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall become due and payable immediately in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture. Holders of Securities may not enforce the Indenture or the Securities except as provided in the Indenture. The Trustee is not obligated to enforce the Indenture or the Securities unless it has received indemnity satisfactory to it. The Indenture permits, subject to certain limitations therein provided, Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding to direct the Trustee in its exercise of any trust or power. The Trustee may withhold from Holders of Securities notice of certain continuing Defaults or Events of Default if it determines that withholding notice is in their interest. 

 

11. Trustee Dealings with Issuer.

 

The Trustee under the Indenture, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Issuer as if it were not the Trustee.

 

12. No Recourse Against Others.

 

No stockholder, director, officer, employee or incorporator, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or any predecessor or successor corporation thereof shall have any liability for any obligation under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each Holder of a Security by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.

 

2

 

 

13. Authentication.

 

This Security shall not be valid until the Trustee manually signs the certificate of authentication on this Security.

 

14. Abbreviations and Defined Terms.

 

Customary abbreviations may be used in the name of a Holder of a Security or an assignee, such as: TEN COM (= tenants in common), TEN ENT (= tenants by the entireties), JT TEN (= joint tenants with right of survivorship and not as tenants in common), CUST (= Custodian), and U/G/M/A (= Uniform Gifts to Minors Act).

 

15. CUSIP Numbers.

 

Pursuant to a recommendation promulgated by the Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures, the Issuer has caused CUSIP numbers to be printed on the Securities as a convenience to the Holders of the Securities. No representation is made as to the accuracy of such numbers as printed on the Securities and reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed hereon.

 

16. Governing Law.

 

The laws of the State of New York shall govern the Indenture and this Security thereof, and for all purposes this Security shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

 

3

 

 

ASSIGNMENT FORM

I or we assign and transfer this Security to

 

 
(Print or type name, address and zip code of assignee or transferee)
 
 
(Insert Social Security or other identifying number of assignee or transferee)

 

and irrevocably appoint agent to transfer this Security on the books of the Issuer. The agent may substitute another to act for him.

 

Dated:      Signed:   
        (Signed exactly as name appears on the other side of this Security)

 

Signature      
Guarantee:    
    Participant in a recognized Signature Guarantee Medallion Program (or other signature guarantor program reasonably acceptable to the Trustee)  

 

 

4

 

 

Exhibit 4.5

 

Form of Subordinated Note

 

(FACE OF SECURITY)

 

[Each Global Security shall bear substantially the following legend:

 

UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY. UNLESS THIS SECURITY IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE ISSUER OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY SECURITY ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.]

 

[If the Security has original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes, insert tax legend:

 

[FOR PURPOSES OF SECTIONS 1272, 1273, and 1275 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, AS AMENDED (“THE CODE”), THIS SECURITY IS BEING ISSUED WITH ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT. THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1273(A)(1) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-1(A)) WITH RESPECT TO THIS SECURITY IS , THE ISSUE DATE (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1275(A)(2) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-2(A)(2)) OF THIS SECURITY IS , THE ISSUE PRICE (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 1273(B) OF THE CODE AND TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1273-2(A)) OF THIS SECURITY IS , AND THE YIELD TO MATURITY (AS DEFINED IN TREASURY REGULATION SECTION 1.1272-1(B)) OF THIS SECURITY IS .] ] 

 

 

 

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

[ Title of Security ]

 

     
No. [  ]   CUSIP No.: [  ]
    [Common Code][ISIN]: [  ]
    [$ ]

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., a Delaware corporation (“Issuer”, which term includes any successor corporation), for value received promises to pay to [If the Security is a Global Security — CEDE & CO.][If the Security is not a Global Security — ] or registered assigns, the principal sum of on , (the “Maturity Date”) [If the Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from or from the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, [semiannually in arrears on and in each year], commencing , (each, an “Interest Payment Date”) at the rate of [ % per annum], until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [If applicable insert—, and (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable) at the rate of % per annum on any overdue principal and on any overdue installment of interest]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in the Indenture (as defined below), be paid to the Holder in whose name this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the record date for such interest, which shall be the or (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date (each, an “Interest Record Date”). Interest will be computed on the basis of [a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months].]

 

[If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at maturity and, in each such case, the overdue principal of this Security shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), which shall accrue from the date of such default in payment to the date payment of such principal has been made or duly provided for. Interest on any overdue principal shall be payable on demand.]

 

Reference is made to the further provisions set forth on the reverse of this Security contained herein, which will for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

 

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Issuer has caused this Security to be signed manually or by facsimile by its duly authorized officer under its corporate seal.

 

           
  TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
     
  By:  
      Name:                           
      Title:  

 

       
Attest:  
     
By:                     
Name:    
Title:    

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

Dated: [  ]

           
  , as Trustee
     
  By:  
      Title:                        

 

 

 

 

(REVERSE OF SECURITY)

 

TFF PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

[ Title of Security ]

 

1.Indenture

 

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of debentures, notes or other evidence of indebtedness (hereinafter called the “Securities”) of the Issuer of the series hereinafter specified, which series is initially limited in aggregate principal amount to [$] , all of such Securities issued and to be issued under an Indenture dated as of , (the “Indenture”) between the Issuer and as trustee (the “Trustee”). Capitalized terms herein are used as defined in the Indenture unless otherwise indicated. The terms of the Securities include those stated in the Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the Indenture. The Securities are subject to all such terms, and Holders are referred to the Indenture and the Trust Indenture Act for a statement of all such terms. To the extent permitted by applicable law, in the event of any inconsistency between the terms of this Security and the terms of the Indenture, the terms of the Indenture shall control. 

 

This Security is one of a series of Securities designated pursuant to the Indenture [and an [Supplemental Indenture] dated ____________, issued pursuant to Section 2.01 and Section 2.03 thereof (the “Supplement”)] as . The Securities are general unsecured obligations of the Issuer. The Issuer may, subject to the provisions of the Indenture and applicable law, issue additional Securities of any series under the Indenture. 

 

2.Method of Payment.

 

The Issuer shall pay interest on the Securities (except defaulted interest) to the persons who are the registered Holders at the close of business on the Interest Record Date immediately preceding the Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to such Interest Record Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date. Holders must surrender Securities to the Trustee to collect principal payments. The Issuer shall pay Principal and interest in money of [the United States] that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts. [However, the payments of interest, and any portion of the Principal (other than interest payable at maturity or on any redemption or repayment date or the final payment of Principal) shall be made by the Paying Agent, upon receipt from the Issuer of immediately available funds by [a./p.m.], New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Issuer and the Paying Agent or the Issuer), directly to a Holder (by Federal funds wire transfer or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and in the case of payments of Principal surrenders the same to the Trustee in exchange for a Security or Securities aggregating the same principal amount as the unredeemed principal amount of the Securities surrendered.] 

 

3. Redemption.

 

[The Securities of this series may be redeemed at any time [on or after , ], as a whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, upon mailing notice of such redemption not less than 30 and not more than 60 days to the Holders of such Securities, at a redemption price equal to .] 

 

4.Paying Agent and Security Registrar

 

Initially, the Trustee will act as Paying Agent and Security Registrar. The Issuer may change any Paying Agent or Security Registrar without notice to the Holders.